Inside a 17th Century Market Deeping Inn

In 1661 an inventory was made of all the rooms of an unnamed inn.  It was certainly in the Market Place and may well be a description of The Bull, which has existed since the 1500s. The only other large inn was one called The Swan, backing on to the river, which  ceased trading by about 1730.

The main room of the premises, where customers were served, had a long wooden seat with a high back, three benches, a table and a wall cupboard for storing glasses.  There were 22 casks of beer in the cellar, each containing around 60 gallons – totalling about 10,000 pints. Beer was brought to the table in the inn’s sixteen stone flagons, as pictured.  The cellar also contained 28 empty casks, so their brewhouse was used on a large scale.  

The kitchen contained pewter dishes, salt cellars, sauceboats, candlesticks and pots & pans of all description for serving food to travellers … plus six chamberpots for those staying overnight.  The two other rooms on the ground floor (known as parlours) contained beds, tables and “other necessaries”.

Upstairs were six rooms used for sleeping or storage, each known by a different name. The most intriguing is “The World’s End Chamber” – possibly the furthest from the staircase?  There was also a Green Chamber, a Little Chamber, a Chimney Chamber, The Gatehouse Chamber, and The Great Chamber.  This last room contained four silver bowls, a silver salt cellar and three silver spoons, so was presumably occupied by the innkeeper. It had basins & ewers for washing and more furnishings than the other rooms, including eight cushions.  The Chimney Chamber was used for storing spare bedding, table cloths, napkins and towels.

There were eleven beds at the inn, ranging from a sealed bed with a wooden canopy and feather mattress, to low trundle beds which could be stored underneath, press beds with folding wooden frames and truss beds which held straw mattresses. 

Malt and oats were stored in the garret, with ten pigs in the yard, a coal house and stables.

The innkeeper in 1661 was Margaret Thorpe who was aged at least seventy and had been widowed three times.  Her first husband, Thomas Shorthose died in 1620 and the following year she married Nathaniel Smith of Deeping St James.  They were at the inn when he died in 1625, leaving money to the poor of each parish and five shillings “for the mending of the wooden bridge”. Margaret remained there, later marrying Thomas Thorpe who owned extensive fishing waters and a duck decoy near Crowland.

After forty years at the heart of Deeping life, including during the Civil War era, Mrs Thorpe would be an invaluable source of local knowledge. If only she could tell us the name of her inn…   

This photograph of the Market Place, taken around 1900 shows The Bull Commercial Inn on the right, and on the far left, Abraham Payne’s grocer’s & draper’s shop.


This month the display in our Heritage Box in the Market Place pays tribute to the men of Deeping St James and Market Deeping who served and fell in the Second World War:

Vickers Lavender BENNETT 1924-44, Richard Harold CARTER 1917-42, J HARDY, Wilson HENFREY 1893-1944, Roy Cyril HORTON 1924-43, Walter Stanley LYNN 1922-43, James Lawrence Anthony MULLIGAN 1923-43, James Robert MOULDING 1925-44, George H PEARSON 1900-44, James Alister ROGERS 1898-1945 and Robert Cecil Blake WYMAN 1923-44.

We have researched their stories, and if anyone is unable to visit the Box, but would like information about one of these men, please email  We are uncertain of details relating to “J Hardy” who is listed on Deeping St James war memorial, and would welcome hearing from anyone who can identify him.    




“Market Merry”

After transacting their business on market day, it was traditional for farmers and other tradesmen to drink together in public houses.  This resulted in some becoming “market merry”, or what on other days might be described as drunk.  Tales are told of farmers falling asleep in their cart, while the horse delivered them safely home, but in 1803 an Essendine farmer was not so lucky. Returning from Stamford market on horseback, he was too “merry” to control the animal, which was blind, and when they reached Ryhall mill, it plunged into the water, and he drowned.

Two Deeping men lost not their lives, but their reputations after market day excesses.  Historic bad behaviour can be entertaining – so long as it involves someone else’s ancestors – so they will remain nameless.

 One Friday in 1840, a tradesman from Deeping visited The Old Salutation Inn, in All Saints Street, Stamford. The building (pictured) is now a private house, but was once a drinking place for dubious characters, and while inside, he was assaulted and had his pocket picked of twenty shillings. He recognised the thieves and took them to court. Despite being the victim of a crime, when it was revealed he had been with a woman of ill-repute, in a bedroom, during the daytime, in a not very sober state, the magistrates lost sympathy.  Although evidence against one of the thieves was strong, because his behaviour had been disgraceful, they dismissed the charge.

The downfall of another local man was Stamford fair in 1858, where he went to sell a horse on behalf of Thomas Shillaker, a Market Deeping baker.  His choice of public house was the Golden Fleece, which still trades in the Sheep Market, and by the time he set off home he was intoxicated. At about 9 pm he went into the Trollope Arms in Uffington, and asked to wash his face which was covered with blood. He told the landlord he had been beaten and robbed by three men on the road from Stamford. (The pub, named after the Trollope family at Casewick Hall, was more recently known as The Gainsborough Lady, but is now closed).

Police  Sergeant Conington of Deeping investigated the attack, and eventually discovered that the victim had been beaten, not by highwaymen, but by a woman in Stamford meadows, after paying her with a counterfeit shilling.

For most people, market days were a harmless opportunity to socialise, but diarist John Byng positively disliked them.   When he arrived at a town in 1785 and found it packed with stalls and farmers, he was “as melancholy as the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe”.  Later at the inn, feeling out of sorts, he drank “two fine basins of snail tea”.  More usually called snail water, it was a common remedy for a variety of disorders in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Garden snails were removed from their shells, then cleaned and boiled in milk or beer before the addition of herbs and sugar. Recipes varied throughout the country, with some including  earthworms, or that well-known fenland cure-all, opium.     













Meeting Places

Unfortunately, we are having to postpone the start of our new season of talks, as The Deepings School is not in a position to hire out  the Conference Centre at present.  Bearing in mind Government regulations and distancing measures, it may be necessary to delay monthly meetings until the New Year. We will provide regular up-dates and  look forward to welcoming everyone back as soon as possible.  

Local public houses used to provide venues for societies and community events.  The former  Black Horse Inn in Church Street, Market Deeping had a large club room built at the back in 1838, to accommodate the recently formed Good Samaritan Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The building, pictured, is now a private house, No. 52.

Another Friendly Society, The Triumph Lodge of the Ancient Order of Foresters, also met in the Black Horse club room and held their annual dinners and dances there. Both organisations had been formed to support working men in times of need.  Members paid subscriptions and could claim financial help if unable to work due to illness, for medical treatment, or funerals.

John Motteram, the landlord, benefited from the Societies’ trade and provided “sumptuous dinners” for their anniversary celebrations, seating more than 100 people.  He also hosted the annual Farmers & Tradesmens’ Ball, when a Quadrille Band from London provided music for square dancing.  When Mr Motteram died in 1868, his large quantity of willow-pattern dinner ware, 60 meat dishes, 160 plates and dozens of sets of cutlery were sold by auction.

Meanwhile, the White Horse Inn on the opposite side of Church Street, advertised its Assembly Rooms on the first floor, with a “fine toned pianoforte”.  Traditionally it catered for commercial travellers and cattle drovers, but by the 1860s was also a venue for evening concerts.  James Buzzard, headmaster of the Endowed School, regularly booked entertainers – one of his sons was a professional actor.

When John Motteram’s son, Joseph became landlord of the White Horse in the early 1870s, the two Friendly Societies who met at the Black Horse, switched their allegiance to him.  He also hosted public balls in the Assembly Rooms.  In January 1873 ” arrangements were such as the nicest taste could not take exception to”, with  dancing starting at 9 pm and continuing until 5 am.

In 1899, Joseph catered for a public dinner of lavish proportions.  Diners were offered roast beef, boiled leg of mutton, shoulder of mutton, rabbit pie, roast turkey, boiled fowl, ham, plum pudding, sweets, cheese and celery.  Music was provided by Thomas Holland, a farmer at Deeping St Nicholas who played the piano, with William Hardy, a well-known blind musician, on the violin.

Even after Mr Motteram left in 1882, the White Horse continued to host frequent public entertainments, Cricket Club “knife and fork teas”, and was the meeting place for three Friendly Societies.

The photograph shows it in the 1950s, with a less ornate front and signage than at present.

Trade at the Black Horse declined, and in 1909 the Licensing Authorities decided it was surplus to local needs. That pub was closed down, but the White Horse is still cantering on.

The local Odd Fellows Society has also survived, and now holds meetings its own premises at  57 Church Street.  Deepings Heritage has previously held exhibitions in the Odd Fellows Hall, which we hope to do again, before too long.    

Middle Row mysteries … and a Murder

For several centuries there was an additional line of shops in the centre of Market Deeping, known as Middle Row.  They stood in the Market Place, parallel with the current shops of  Private Kollection, Linfords Fish & Chips and the old Police Station near the roundabout.  In 1563 they were recorded as “certain shops standing all in a row in the middle of market street near the market cross”, but may have existed many years earlier.

The drawing, based on a map from around 1808, shows five properties in Middle Row, with two of them joined to buildings on the river bank, so that people could only pass on one side.  At that date the bridge over the river was next to the New Inn, now called The Stage.  (Click on the map to enlarge it)

What did they look like?  Unfortunately,  they were demolished in 1846, before the era of photography, so there are no images.  We don’t know if they had one or two storeys, but they had probably been re-built  over the centuries.  When Thomas Pulley retired from his draper’s and grocer’s shop in Middle Row in 1810, he described it as “a modern, well-built, slated house, having a shop in front with large sashed window and good sitting and sleeping rooms.”  The shop next-door belonged to Leonard Wilkinson, a clothier, and in the middle of the Row, William Sharpe made women’s corsets.

After the new town bridge was built in 1841, the road from Peterborough passed close to the top of Middle Row, as shown in the map below.  A few years later, a group of local businessmen formed a Committee for improving the Town of Market Deeping.   They described the Row as “an unsightly pile of buildings” and raised funds to buy the properties and have them demolished.

The recovered building materials included new stone, bricks, blue and grey slate, shop windows and sash windows, giving few clues about the Row’s construction.

In 1847 the former owners were paid compensation of varying amounts, from £62 to £535, depending on the value of their buildings.  Thomas Pulley’s unmarried daughter Elizabeth, who had inherited his premises, received £145.

Was Middle Row really unsightly? Perhaps if it had been retained, it would now be a quaint, tourist attraction.

One artist thought it worth recording, as an old print showing the buildings is known to have existed. A copy was bought by public subscription, and presumably put on display in Market Deeping, but by the 1960s it could no longer be traced. Who made the drawing and where is it now?

There is a tragic footnote to the demise of Middle Row.  In 1860 Elizabeth Pulley was murdered during a burglary at her house in Stamford, when  money, jewellery and silverware were stolen.  A gold ring engraved with the name Thomas Pulley was seen in the workshop of one of her near neighbours, a carpenter who had previously been jailed for theft. Suspicions grew, he showed signs of panic and was arrested.  A few weeks later, a man fishing near Hudd’s Mill pulled a package wrapped in cloth out of the river. It contained silver cutlery monogrammed EP.  In total, forty-four items were retrieved, all hallmarked 1847 – the year Miss Pulley received her compensation money.

 (The original maps shown above are held in the National Archives)


Summer Entertainments

With no raft race to enjoy this year, no carnival or garden fetes, we can only hope for better things in 2021, and take a look back at some summer events early last century.

In August 1912, Deeping St James Aquatic Sports were held on the river.  The weather wasn’t ideal.  There was a strong north-easterly wind and competitors complained of the cold, but a new feature that year, a tug-of-war, caused much amusement.  An unscheduled incident also entertained the crowd.  Three of the organising committee were in a boat to conduct proceedings, when one of the competitors deliberately overturned it and pitched them into the water.

Behaviour was less unruly at St Guthlac’s church bazaar and fete in June 1912, attended by “a large and influential gathering”.  It was held in the rectory gardens and featured stalls selling glass & china, items costing sixpence or a shilling, and ice-cream.   Hoop-la and Old English Games were played, and concerts were held in the study.  In the evening Market Deeping brass band provided music for dancing.

This small gathering in the Market Place looks like part of a carnival procession, but unfortunately, it’s not possible to read the banner on the donkey cart.  There is a Red Cross flag on the left, and two of the soldiers are wearing white arm bands which may signify a Red Cross connection.  They are standing in front of Market Deeping Post Office, now Domino’s Pizza.  On the right is the shop of Harold Joselyn, a bicycle maker, who moved his business to Deeping in 1912/13. He had left the village by 1933, so the photograph was taken between those dates, most likely around the time of the First World War.  Mr Joselyn’s shop is now Sharman Quinney Estate Agents.

In August 1920 there was a novel competition at one Market Deeping fete, when people were asked to guess the combined weight of the rector, Canon Paul Ashby, MC and a local doctor.  It was won by the wife of an auctioneer.

Lincolnshire Free Press published this photograph of Deeping’s 1938 Carnival Queen, naming her as Rose Fowler, aged 13.

Rosemary Fowler was a daughter of Felix and Julia, nee Swift, who lived in Eastgate.  By 1939 the family had moved to Broadgate Lane, Deeping St James.

If anyone can name her attendants, please let us know.

The Park, formerly behind the Library building, was the venue for a fete in August 1939.  The outstanding feature was a model railway with two small steam locomotives, which gave rides to children and adults.

People planning events for 2021 are unlikely to include competitions for the most shapely ankles (male and female), “Hitting the Ham” or “Knocking George’s hat off”, but a large crowd in The Park enjoyed these diversions, just before the outbreak of another war.





Deeping versus Crowland

In 1390 the abbot of Crowland sent a petition to the king, listing ten grievances against the Lord of the Manor of Deeping and his tenants. He alleged they had assaulted the abbot’s servants at Deeping market and prevented them from taking provisions to the abbey by river, and seized wagons and horses on the way to Crowland, badly beating one of the drivers.  Other complaints related to disputes about fishing, collecting peat and taking away sheep and cows from the abbey’s manors of Langtoft and Baston.

The Lord of Deeping Manor was Sir Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent & Lord Wake.  He had a reputation for being cruel, selfish and chiefly aiming at enriching himself.  He was also a half-brother of the king.  Richard II had come to the throne in 1377, aged only ten, and Lord Wake was said to have exerted an bad influence over him.

Tension between Crowland abbey and the Wake family, relating to Deeping, had existed for more than a century, with disputes about ownership of marshland and stretches of the river Welland.

Boundaries of the abbey’s land were marked by a series of stones. The one pictured is known as St Guthlac’s Cross, and still stands at Brotherhouse Bar, near Barrier Bank between Crowland and Cowbit. The shaft dates from around 1200 and has an inscription in Latin, which approximately translates as “Guthlac here has placed his boundary stone”.

In 1391, a year after the Crowland petition, Lord Wake complained to the king that the abbot had seized a great part of the marsh of Deeping, over two miles long, and damaged a dyke by removing trees so that the river flooded.  He also accused him of taking control of fisheries and ordering his armed men to commit violence against Deeping tenants.

Clearly, both sides gave as good as they got, with local people caught in the crossfire between two powerful men.  St Bartholomew’s Day fair, held at Crowland every August was a risky place for visitors from Deeping. In 1391 Lord Wake’s men were robbed and beaten, put in the stocks and then thrown in the water.  He alleged that afterwards the abbot and his servants, “knowing these outrages had been committed, enjoyed food and drink.”

Sir Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent & Lord Wake died in 1397, and was buried in Bourne Abbey. His half-brother, King Richard II was deposed in 1399 and died the following year.

When we look at the peaceful ruins of Crowland Abbey and its church, its hard to imagine its involvement in 14th century theft and violence, but disputes over fenland also caused conflict between Spalding Priory and the Lords of Deeping.

Petitions to the king from the Wake family and abbots of Crowland were written in “Anglo-Norman” French, as was usual for legal documents at that time.  Full translations are included in “Petitions from Lincolnshire c1200-c1500”, published by Lincoln Record Society. 


Historic Footpaths

We have a large network of public footpaths in the Deepings – some providing useful short cuts, and others routed across farmland in peaceful isolation, which people especially value at present.   Some have been in use for over two hundred years.

When the open field system of farming ended here in the early 19th century, landowners fenced off their properties, and Commissioners were appointed by Act of Parliament to establish legal rights of way for local people to cross private land.  A meeting was held in January 1809 at the New Inn (now The Stage) to discuss proposals for eighteen footpaths linking Market Deeping, Deeping St James and Frognall.

Let’s take a virtual stroll along one of these paths, which many people may use in small sections, without realising its full length or history.  It starts at the top of the gravel lane by Market Deeping cemetery, then follows the cemetery hedge and continues straight ahead alongside a row of horse chestnut trees. In 1809 the grassland on the right was a glebe field, allocated to the rector, Joseph Monkhouse, as part of his benefits. His successor, the reverend William Hildyard planted it with “valuable timber”, but only a small number of trees remain. In the 1990s it was bought by the Town Council for community use, and now includes a cycle track.

This photograph shows the view looking backwards towards St Guthlac’s church, while our route continues over the pedestrian crossing in Godsey Lane.  Take a few steps to the left, before entering Tesco’s car park along its boundary with William Hildyard’s School grounds.  Both the school and the store are built on part of a nineteen acre field which was also allocated to the rector as glebe land.  Originally, the footpath bisected this field in a straight line.

Reaching the front of Tesco’s, turn right and follow a path round the side of the building next to the school playground.  It leads into a recent housing development called Jubilee Drive.  Cross the paved roadway and re-join a tarmac path about one metre in front of the house windows.

Ahead is a tall hedge with a gap in it, which marks the parish boundary line between Market Deeping and Deeping St James. The footpath continues through the gap into part of a field which in 1809 was owned by farmer Francis Mawby.  It is currently uncultivated and well-trodden earth shows the way forward.

Walk straight ahead, crossing over a small dyke, then  continue alongside a deeper drainage channel.  Until recently, crops were still grown in the field on the right-hand side, which was owned by Tyghe’s Charity, but it is now a construction site for Linden Homes.


The photograph shows a view looking back towards Market Deeping. The historic sight-line to the church is now blocked by new houses in Jubilee Grove, but the top of the tower can be glimpsed in the distance.

Our footpath leaves the field over a wooden bridge, and comes to an end in Linchfield Road.

Although their surroundings continue to change, the paths survive, well-used by people taking exercise, and it normal times by school children and shoppers.


We hope to resume our monthly meetings next season, whenever it is safe to do so, and wish everyone good health in the meantime.










House Histories

We were due to hear a talk in April by Debbie Frearson and Carole Bancroft Turner, who investigate architectural histories, but as that meeting had to be cancelled, we are hoping  to re-book them next season.

While confined to home,  we can instead go back in time to Chester’s restaurant at No. 102 Church Street, Market Deeping, and track its transformation from a 17th century farmhouse.  Originally the whole building was one dwelling, with a large stone barn and farmyard on the north side where the almshouses now stand, and more than an acre of grassland behind.

In the 18th century it was the home of John Mawby, a wealthy land and property owner who died in 1797. His son Francis inherited the farmstead, but due to financial difficulties, had to sell it in 1817.   It was then split up, with the barn and land put to separate use and the house divided into two.

The section with the bay window, which is now Chester’s, was let to Christopher Williamson, a chemist and druggist in 1818.  He advertised genuine patent medicines, paints, oils, colours and sheep ointment of the best quality.  He later sold groceries as well, and traded there for almost 40 years.  He was succeeded by his grandson, grocer William Torey for a few years in the 1850s, then grocer Edward Wherry.  By 1860 the premises were empty.  Trade in Deeping had declined, due to the railways taking over from horse-drawn transport, and fewer travellers passing through the town.

In 1863 the property was advertised to let, as “a good house, shop and business premises”.  The next known tenant was  John Cole, a boot and shoe-maker and leather factor.  He was followed by James Needham, a saddler and then Elijah Dixon, a plumber, glazier and painter.  In 1889 a fire broke out in Mr Dixon’s workshop when soot in a stove set light to straw in the store room below. Stamford Mercury reported that “many neighbours were quickly on the spot, forming a line with buckets of water.  A messenger rushed off for the Deeping St James fire engine and in less than an hour it was there”!

When Mr Dixon moved out, a butcher took over, and by 1898 it was Frederick Ostler’s fishmonger’s shop, where fish was fried two days a week.  In the early 20th century, Joseph Plowright, a plumber & decorator traded from the premises. He was followed by William Measures who ran a fruit and vegetable shop, which was continued into the 1960s by his son James.

This photograph taken in the 1950s, shows a parade led by Scottish pipers, marching in front of the Measures family’s shop. A later greengrocery was kept there by Roy and Rosalie Opperman.

In 1987, the building began its present lifestyle as a tearoom, when George and Elaine Szarawski opened their Farmhouse Tea Shop.  A French chef took over in 1996 and the premises became a patisserie called La Maison Gourmand.

For the past 14 years, many people have enjoyed the hospitality of Chester’s restaurant, and look forward to the time it can re-open.


South Lincolnshire on Old Film

On Thursday, 12th March, Lincolnshire Film Archives will show a compilation of old film taken around this area, including some in the Deepings.  It should bring back memories and give insights into how life has changed.  The presentation starts at 7.30 pm in the Conference Centre, Deepings School.  Everyone is welcome.   There is a £3 charge for non-members.

This photograph shows flooding in High Street, Market Deeping in March 1947.  After many weeks of snow and ice, there was a sudden thaw and the river overflowed.  Thomas Jibb, who lived in Horsegate, is wading in front of Sharpe & Wade, solicitors’ office, which is now Deeping Community Library.


In the early 1900s, Deeping Horse Show was held in Mr Wade’s park at the back of that building, and included a competition for the best Tradesman’s Turnout.  Tradespeople took a pride in the appearance of their horses and carts, and a regular prizewinner was saddler & harness-maker, Daniel Wells, who had premises nearby, in Bridge Street, Deeping St James.

The photograph of his turnout was taken at the Horse Show, probably around 1906.  From 1908 he had the words “Licensed Horse Slaughterer” painted on the side of his horse-drawn cart.



The second picture, of Mr Wells at his business premises, shows him sharpening his knife, ready to cut up a carcass.

In 1910, after the death of his first wife, he married Alice Maud Bland, whose sister Lucy traded as L E Bland, bakers & grocers in the Market Place.  She had a second shop in Bridge Street, Deeping St James, run by her sister Angelina.  Lucy also competed at the Deeping Horse Show, beating Daniel to first prize in the Tradesman’s event on at least one occasion.


The photograph of her horse and cart outside the Market Deeping shop was taken about 1910. She provided luncheons and a tearoom in the premises, which were later taken over by Lambert & Kisby, bakers and grocers, and are now the Carpets & Flooring shop.

The man standing by the horse is Lucy Bland’s brother, George, while on the pavement is Charles Thacker, a farmer who lived in Horsegate.  He was married to Parthenia, another of her sisters.

In a small community like the Deepings, families in trade often intermarried, and in 1912 Lucy married Charles Barsby, who was employed as a baker at her Deeping St James shop. 







A Bird’s Eye View of Peterborough

At our meeting on Thursday, 13th February, we welcome back Peter Waszak who is a member of Peterborough Civic Society.  His presentation will highlight changes to the city centre, both before and during the 1970s re-development, using photographs taken from the top of tall buildings.  The event starts at 7.30 pm in the Conference Centre, Deepings School, and everyone is welcome.  There is a charge of £3 for non-members.

This aerial photograph of Market Deeping, dating from about 1930, shows the village before modern housing expansion.  In the foreground is Wherry’s Mill on Stamford Road – only the mill house now remains.   The Market Place is on the right-hand side, with Church Street stretching across the centre. Running parallel,  Godsey Lane can be seen beyond, with fields on both sides, and further in the distance, Linchfield Road crosses open countryside.

(Click on the photograph to increase its size)


A view from above the Peterborough road around 1950, shows Godsey Lane across the top right-hand corner, and north of Towngate Outgang the accommodation buildings of RAF Langtoft can be seen.  These were demolished following closure of the radar station in the mid 1960s.  Only the officers’ houses remain in Wellington Way, and the former NAAFI hut which is now used by Scouts.

Houses in “The Grove” leading off Church Street have not yet been built, and there is still a large orchard of fruit trees where “The Orchard” housing development took place in the late 1960s.

This photograph looking towards St Guthlac’s church, has Hall Farm and it’s outbuildings on the far left.  The farmhouse had been built in 1907 to replace old Wake Hall Farm, and was itself demolished in 1989 to make way for “Hall Farm” housing estate.

The allotments  shown behind houses on the west side of Church Street were built upon in the 1960s when “The Avenue” was constructed.  This involved demolishing a bungalow and another small building next to No. 46 Church Street.

The final view is taken from Market Deeping’s only tall building, the church tower, looking south along Church Street towards the bridge.  It dates from an era before motorised traffic, when a man and his dog, and two boys, could loiter in the middle of the road.